IBB started religious crises in Nigeria – Confab delegate
“This introduction of sharia law upset the agreement on the eve of independence, which confined the application of sharia law to issues of family and personal status law, such as marriage, divorce, child custody, and inheritance. It also ended the former practice under which the entire nation, including the North, was governed by one criminal code that provided punishments for criminal offenses throughout the nation.
“Subsequently, contrary to the letter and spirit of the Settlement of 1960, some Northern leaders worked furtively yet diligently to expand the role of sharia law in the public square. These attempts took place under successive military regimes, beginning in 1979, when northern Muslims staged a walk-out during the drafting of the Second Republic constitution, following the defeat of their proposal to include a Federal Sharia Court of Appeal in the constitution.
“The impasse was resolved in 1979, during the rule of General Olusegun Obasanjo, a Christian, only following agreement by the Constituent Assembly, which wrote into the new constitution provisions for State Sharia Courts of Appeal “for any state that requires it, “and, in the same manner, Customary Courts of Appeal,” for any state that requires it.” Successive military rulers, all of whom were Muslims, did not approach the sharia issue with the same even-handedness.
“For example, in 1986, General Ibrahim Babangida (Head of State from 1985 to 1993), clandestinely enrolled the country into the Organization of the Islamic Conference, backing off only following a deafening public outcry from Christians in all parts of the country.” – Maazi Philip Aka (Dr.), http://scholarlycommons.law.cwsl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1454&context=cwilj
By the 1800s it was apparent that the Fulani priest Uthman Dan Fodio and his vision had provided the Moslem world with the leaders of the planned Islamization of black Africa, since this vision was already being quoted by scholars during that period.
It is of import it be pointed out that, initially, this was no different from the Christian Crusade in Africa, but although the Crusade over time had petted out and turned to peaceful persuasion, in Africa, forced Islamization morphed into strong armed political tactics based on controlled anarchy but remained in place.
James Africanus Horton, in his 1868 treatise, West African Countries and Peoples, quoting Mr. Koelle’s Polyglotta Africana, gives us an insight into the birth of the born-to-rule.
“Of the ascendency of Mohammedanism in Central and Western Africa we gather the following from Mr. Koelle’s Polyglotta Africana, p. 18: ‘The original home of the Fulba or Phula was in Lilubawa, near Futa Loro, whose inhabitants are called Toronko, and where they have been often molested by the Kafirs. To escape this molestation they went gradually towards the east, in the capacity of nomadic shepherds, till they arrived at Hausa…
“After they had been tending their flocks a long time in those forests and grass-fields, without towns, and subsisting simply on produce of their herds, one of their priests, of the name Fodie, had an apparition of the Prophet Mohammed, which was destined to form a most signal epoch in the history of Phula, and indeed in the history of the whole of Central and Western Africa. In this apparition Fodie was informed that the whole of that beautiful country around them, with all its populous towns and countless villages, belonged to the believers in the prophet, to wit the Phula; and that it was Fodie’s divine commission, with the help of the faithful, to wrest all those flowery plains, fruitful hills, and lovely valleys, from the hand of the Kafirs, and then to bring all the Kafirs into subjection to the Islam, and to devote to the sword everyone who refused to believe.
“Almost beside himself with enthusiasm, and burning with fanaticism, Fodie summoned the believing Fulbe, from every country to the very coast of the Atlantic, to rally around his banner, and to fight with him the battle of the Prophet for the subjugation of all the Kafir tribes of Africa to the religion of God and his Prophet. And, like an electric shock, this message of Fodie pervaded all the lands where Phula were sojourning; and with a magical power converted the shepherds into warriors. Soon Fodie was himself surrounded by an army convinced of its own invincibility, and thirsty for the battle.
“Thus commenced those extraordinary Phula movements in Central Africa, which, though unrecorded on the pages of our universal histories, are yet written in streams of blood on the pages of the real natural history of our race, in which every human action records itself. On the spot where Fodie had his apparition, he afterwards built the town of Sokoto, now the great center of Phula power in Africa’.” – West African Countries and Peoples, James Africanus Horton (1868)
It is therefore not surprising that the Sarduana of Sokoto, Alhaji Sir Ahmadu Bello, empowered by the British government, continued to embrace the Jihad in order to implement the continued colonization of Nigeria; the belief that Nigeria is their conquered territory to do with as they see fit; leading, of course, to the continuing total, unchallenged and unquestioned domination, pillaging and looting of Nigeria.
“The new nation called Nigeria should be an estate of our great grandfather Uthman Dan Fodio. We must ruthlessly prevent a change of power. We use the minorities in the North as willing tools and the South as a conquered territory and never allow them to rule over us and never allow them to have control over their future”. – (Parrot Newspaper, 12th October, 1960, recalled by Tribune, 13th November, 2002.
The Abuja Declaration succinctly, for nay Sayers, brings this planned forced Islamization of Africa into focus.
“What is commonly known as the “Abuja Declaration” is officially known as “Islam in Africa Conference: Communiqué”. This was a communiqué issued at the end of the Islam in Africa conference held in Abuja, Nigeria, on 24-28 November 1989. This conference, organized by the 46-member Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC), resolved to create an organization to be known as Islam in Africa Organization to spearhead a Muslim initiative to solve the problems facing Africa. This initiative essentially calls for the Islamization of the entire continent of Africa.”
East Africa Center for Law & Justice
The Abuja Declaration
In the publication ‘Judicial Independence under Nigeria’s Fourth Republic: Problems and Prospects’, in California Western International Law Journal, Vol. 45 , No. 1, Art. 2, Maazi Philip Aka, a member of IgboZaraIgbo, zooms in on the attempts by successive Nigerian Northern led governments to deliberately move the goal post by breaking all constitutional provisions, an attempt towards a planned deliberate Islamization of Nigeria.
Philip C Aka
A founding member of the Global Igbo Renaissance;
Member: IgboZaraIgbo; an Igbo organization that embraces the ancient Igbo form of governance, Ohacracy – the collective servant leadership form of democracy; that understands that one must not only talk the talk but also walk the walk; that understands that the stance on truth cannot be compromised or Igbo leadership for sell; that embraces the Igbo way (Omenala Igbo) with modern day modification as the only way forward and the solution to what ails Igbo; that subscribes to the belief that each ethnic nationality must plot its own path unhindered by any.
“Professor of Political Science, Chicago State University; Adjunct Professor of Law and S.J.D. Candidate, Indiana University Robert H. McKinney School of Law-Indianapolis; Member of the Illinois Bar; former Vice Chair, ABA Committee on International Human Rights. B.A. (magna cum laude), Edinboro University of Pennsylvania; M.A., University of North Texas; J.D., Temple University School of Law; LL.M. (summa cum laude), Indiana University School of Law at Indianapolis; Ph.D., Howard University.
This article originated as a paper presented at the Twenty-Third Annual Africa/Diaspora Conference of the Center for African Peace and Conflict Resolution (CAPCR), held April 24-26, 2014, at California State University, Sacramento, California.”
For the full article http://scholarlycommons.law.cwsl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1454&context=cwilj
“IV. Two FACTORS OF NIGERIAN POLITICS WITH POTENTIAL IMPLICATIONS FOR JUDICIAL INDEPENDENCE
Two factors from Nigerian politics under the Second Republic since 1999 with potential implications for judicial independence are the adoption of sharia code in the twelve northern states, and the invigoration of the ECOWAS Community Court of Justice. The first seems negative while the second is potentially positive.
The first of these developments is the adoption of sharia law as criminal code in twelve northern states, beginning in January 2000, almost from the onset of the Fourth Republic. The effects of the adoption and implementation of sharia law were magnified by the introduction of private sharia instruments, known as Independent Sharia Panels (“ISPs”), in non-northern cities with sizable Muslim populations, such as Ijebu-Ode, Ibadan, and Lagos in Western Nigeria.
“Going further, Nigeria’s sharia states created Hisbah organization, or sharia police, charged with responsibility for prosecuting a range of offenses, including “social vices” like prostitution, mixing of the sexes, and drinking in public places. Taken together, these actions had the effect of restoring sharia law in Northern Nigeria “to a state of completeness and a degree of autonomy “never seen before in the country” for over a century.”
This introduction of sharia law upset the agreement on the eve of independence, which confined the application of sharia law to issues of family and personal status law, such as marriage, divorce, child custody, and inheritance. It also ended the former practice under which the entire nation, including the North, was governed by one criminal code that provided punishments for criminal offenses throughout the nation. Subsequently, contrary to the letter and spirit of the Settlement of 1960, some Northern leaders worked furtively yet diligently to expand the role of sharia law in the public square. These attempts took place under successive military regimes, beginning in 1979, when northern Muslims staged a walk-out during the drafting of the Second Republic constitution, following the defeat of their proposal to include a Federal Sharia Court of Appeal in the constitution.
“The impasse was resolved in 1979, during the rule of General Olusegun Obasanjo, a Christian, only following agreement by the Constituent Assembly, which wrote into the new constitution provisions for State Sharia Courts of Appeal “for any state that requires it, “and, in the same manner, Customary Courts of Appeal, “for any state that requires it.” Successive military rulers, all of whom were Muslims, did not approach the sharia issue with the same even-handedness. For example, in 1986, General Ibrahim Babangida (Head of State from 1985 to 1993), clandestinely enrolled the country into the Organization of the Islamic Conference, backing off only following a deafening public outcry from Christians in all parts of the country.
The solicitude for sharia law in northern Nigeria reached an all-time high with the adoption and implementation of this law in the twelve states in the region beginning, as indicated before, with Zamfara State in the Northwestern portion of the country, in 2000. Though the Nigerian constitution forbids the adoption of a state religion, none of Nigeria’s three presidents under the Fourth Republic, all of them members of the dominant People’s Democratic Party (“PDP”), have seen it fit to seek a ruling by the Nigerian Supreme Court regarding the constitutionality of the twelve northern states’ adoption of sharia law as criminal code, contrary to the settlement of 1960.
Although enthusiasm for aggressive implementation of sharia law appeared to wane with the passage of time, the adoption of sharia law as criminal code remains an issue with possible negative implication for judicial independence, if nothing else, it adds a layer of complexity to a judicial system that before 1999 remained nearly secular.”
It is no longer in doubt that leaders of the core-North have continued to move the goal post, irrespective of the secularity of Nigeria embedded in the constitution, towards the implementation of total Islamization of Nigeria; those who still are of the opinion that the strategy of ‘see no evil, hear no evil and speak no evil’ will give them succor are completely mistaken. The defeat of Biafra during the Biafra/Nigeria war dealt a major blow to the resistance to born-to-rule domination and paved the way to the total Islamization of Nigeria. The era in which Igbo championed the course of the ethnic nationalities in Nigeria is in the rear view and is discouraged, anyway, since each ethnic nationality must now stand on its own feet or forever accept the consequences of its inaction.
In this modern age, forced conversion and colonization, real or imagined, whether international or local must be resisted; after more than 100 years of experimentation that has cost the lives of millions and continue to cost the lives of million more while condemning tens of millions to the life of the living dead – hopeless and helpless, with Africa teetering on complete anarchy, the failed British created contraption, Nigeria, the engine driving this anarchy, must be peacefully dissolved, no different from other failed and unworkable entities. The solution is simple and must begin with each ethnic nationality uncompromisingly seizing and taking charge of its own destiny.
Every ethnic nationality must control 100% of its political space;
Every ethnic nationality must control 100% of its boundary;
Every ethnic nationality must control 100% of its resources;
Every ethnic nationality must grow at its own pace;
Every ethnic nationality must govern itself;
Every ethnic nationality must speak for itself.
God bless Africa and the ethnic nationalities that make up Nigeria.
Maazi Nnaemeka Mene Onumonu-Uzoaru, Oha Ka (The People are SUPREME), Ancient (in training) Igbo/Itsekiri Analyst, Strategist and Long Range Planner, Member: IgboZaraIgbo
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